Disease arise because of an excess of heat or cold, which in turn arise because of an excess or deficiency in nutrition.
Disease arises in the blood, the marrow or the brain

Alcmaeon of Croton

Selected Topics

Site modifications and updates

19 January 2024
Multiple dead links have been removed or changed into active ones. The "history" pages have been updated with several new links to relevant works. A new page summarizing the history of biology during years 1920-1939 has been translated into French.

1 January 2024
Creation of a new page for science and health-related news in 2024 and correction of many minor bugs in previous pages.

8 November 2023
Pages devoted to the origin of genome programs are translated into Spanish.

29 October 2023
A lecture read at the 100th anniversary of the birth René Thom at the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques in Bures-sur-Yvette has been added to the site.

14 September 2023
Multiple links to the original text of treaties of historical importance are added in the "history" and "histoire" pages for example Jan Swammerdam's Histoire générale des Insectes. Ou l'on expose la manière lente et presque insensible de l'accroissement de leurs membres, et ou l'on découvre evidemment l'Erreur ou l'on tombe d'ordinaire au sujet de leur prétendue transformation, in French as this was the rule at the time.

4 April 2023
Several new links to the original text of treaties of historical importance are added in the "history" and "histoire" pages. For example link to the original staining of the organisms now known as bacteria by Friedrich Wilhelm von Gleichen is now available directly from the pages.

13 February 2023
The pages of this site will be progressively modified to reduce their carbon print. This page has a category A EcoIndex. We will ensure that all pages have an EcoIndex from A to C.

29 December 2022
Update of links, cosmetic improvements over pages and recent bibliography update.

19 December 2022
Several dozen references to patents citing our papers added in the bibliography. Many are also used in Wikipedia pages (note that this is unstable and anonymous, however). A reference to a preliminary report on the origin of SARS-CoV-2 by the Senate of the USA is provided in our daily updates. When the link will disappear the original paper will be provided here.

26 November 2022
Several links added to the original source of works, such as the Physiologie végétale of Candolle or the contribution of Geoffroy Saint Hilaire à l'évolution des formes animales en fonction de l'environnement.

23 November 2022

Update of the History / Histoire section with link to Stéphane Leduc's La Biologie Synthétique now archived here. Removal of dead links and cosmetic changes. chemical garden

17 October 2022
The Web is always moving, and many links become obsolete. Dead links are now being repaired or replaced on many pages, especially in the entire subsection of the site "causeries".

8 October 2022
A text on the organic/inorganic difference is added to the site. Antoine Destutt de Tracy creates the concept of idéologie. Various corrections on multiple pages.

22 August 2022
New page summarizing the true secret of life, namely energy-dissipating discrimination.

18 July 2022
Updating of multiple works that predate those of Pasteur.

17 July 2022
The original text by Murray Gell-Mann proposing 'plectics' as the science of simplicity and complexity.

13 February 2022
Multiple link updates.

1 January 2022
The page devoted to uncommon news about science and epidemics enters a new year. The page for 2021 is now standing alone. 在2022年,本网站将引入新的中文条目。

3 December 2021
Multiple updates, in particular of the resume in Chinese. 多次更新,特别是中文简历的更新。

30 May 2021
We begin to update information about science in the Middle Ages, a time which was much more important and considerably less obscurantist than the image provided since the time of the self-congratulating « Enlightment ». The first entry is reference to the work of Meletius the Monk, who was an important precursor of William Harvey and probably a missing link between Antiquity and scholars such as Avicenna.

8 May 2021
The development of COVID-19 has required many changes in these pages, in particular the splitting up of year 2020 into several sections for regular information on the pandemic. Pages that are highly similar in French and in English are now using an attribute that allows them to be read as a function of the country of the reader (using link rel="alternate"). Some changes have been made in history pages as well as in the Presocratics pages, as suggested by readers or after getting access to new information sources.

17 August 2020
The majority of pages of the site have been revamped to try to make them more visible for keyword research, in particular linked to emerging diseases.

19 July 2020
A second wave of COVID-19 epidemic has begun at many places while the first wave is expanding fast, in particular in India and not under control in the USA.

18 May 2020
The COVID-19 epidemic has reached its peak, but a second wave may be starting. The unfolding of the epidemic is still monitored on a regular basis.

8 February 2020
The 2019-nCoV epidemic is updated on a daily basis, with more frequent updates as required by its evolution. As a consequence of its development the company AMAbiotics SAS will change its name to Stellate Therapeutics. 2023: The company ceased its activity in September 2023.

17 January 2020
Various updates about epidemics (Wuhan's coronavirus and H5N8 flu). Modification of the note on Brown's motion with direct link to his work.

1 january 2020
A disease similar to SARS begins to develop in Wuhan, China. We will follow up its development.

28 December 2019
Introduction of François-Vincent Raspail in our history section, for his role in stating that cells come from cells (omnis cellula e cellula). However, while I found two articles by Raspail in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles in 1825, I did not find the explicit popular statement, despite the fact that Raspail used a comparison with soap bubbles to state that in contrast to those which do not generate bubbles, cells were making cells.

8 December 2019
Slight modifications of the .css style. Pages with old style are replaced by novel ones, such as the CASB or EFBIC pages. The bibliography is updated as is the lectures pages for lectures in English (update of lectures delivered in Hong Kong in november) or conférences en Français.

11 October 2019
Pages are progressively cleaned up. We have now included a page on the role of classification in constructing consistent classes of living organisms.

5 August 2019
Many broken links are removed or modified if we could find an equivalent. The lack of memory of the WWW is worrying because it leads to 1984 « Doublethink » and the rewriting of history by the Ministry of Truth. As in Big Brother's totalitarian world: « Who controls the past controls the future, who controls the present controls the past ».

4 August 2019
Minor changes in several pages, update of bibliographies, and reference to the work of George Bentham is included in our history pages: 1800-1849 and 1850-1874.

12 May 2019
At the suggestion of a knowledgeable reader, the entries about Joblot's work are corrected in the history section, with addition of a link to his Descriptions et usages de plusieurs nouveaux microscopes, published in 1718, with important first reflections about spontaneous generation.

2 May 2019
Addition of a new page on « motivated research » in French : recherche motivée

30 April 2019
The index pages and summary of AD's work is now referring to Landauer's principle.

25 February 2019
A new page of bibliography is added.

27 October 2018
Small corrections and updates of the lectures section.

28 August 2018
Some of the translation into French of sections of the history of biology have  been corrected.

23 August 2018
Several new definitions have been introduced in the glossary (also in the france glossaire) and broken or obsolete links have been corrected or removed.

8 August 2018
The role of Wilhelm Busch who use erysipela to treat cancer is introduced in our brief history of biology.

8 May 2018
The Internet is extremely unstable as many links rapidly die off. We had to delete links to the Xinhua agency during the SARS episode and later on. In the same way the popular magazine Nature keeps changing the way it allows access to its articles, systematically breaking links. This is unfortunate as this precludes correct referencing of historical events. A new page, in French, advocates for the study of humanities.

27 April 2018
A new page, focusing on the beginnings of Synthetic Biology (US-EU task force in 2006) is created.

12 April 2018
We extend our code modifications to accomodate CSS flexboxes instead of tables. This is considerably time-consuming and will be progressively built up, especially as we enter new pages.

8 April 2018
We begin to modify all pages code to make them keyboard accessible. This required slightly changing the overall format, including colour contrast. Remaining typos are corrected at the same time, as much as possible.

5 April 2018
fr A new page in French (Formes vivantes) is added to the site. It develops a reflection on living forms, with important consequences for the theory of evolution by natural selection.

4 April 2018
The underscore in page titles will progressively be replaced by a dash. This begins with pages origine-fr and origine-en changed into origine-fr and origine-en respectively. Missing links are repaired or deleted across pages.

14 January 2018
The css style sheet of the site has been slightly modified to improve readability while remaining consistent with the vast amount of information made available to the interested reader.

2 January 2018
Improved links to the original site of the HKU-Pasteur Research Centre Ltd. Tests for animation of some images.

22 November 2017
Small corrections of typos in several pages (many still remain). Introduction of a text in French about the development of genome studies at the Institut Pasteur.

24 April 2017
The general layout of the pages has been streamlined and it will progressively be changed in all individual pages. However, the overall constraints of WWW pages is for the time being based on the English language and we will retain french (and some other languages) in a significant part of the site, which does not fit with widespread recommendations. For example here the index page (Accueil) is in French, while standards recommend that it is labelled "HOME".

16 April 2017
Most images were compressed to speed up loading of the site. The code of most pages was partially cleaned up to comply to recommendations of the W3C as much as possible, considering that some pages are archives, which were written at a time when standards were very different from present ones

13 April 2017
Change of the name of the home page present at the archives site of the HKU-Pasteur Research Centre Ltd from Home_HKU_P_RCL.html to Home-HKUPRCL.html and update of all pages calling for this page.

11 April 2017
Input of a new page (in French) with the introduction of a report of the GDR1029 "Informatique et Génomes" from the CNRS. This page replaces an obsolete link pointing to the report, now unavailable.

10 April 2017
The names of folders and pages at this site will progressively replace underscores by dashes.

5 January 2017
Deletion of broken links. Unfortunately most of those associated to news provided by media are no longer available and cannot be recovered in any form.