Upon almost-every realisation of the Brownian continuum random tree (CRT), it is possible to define a canonical diffusion process or `Brownian motion'. The main result of this article establishes that the cover time of the Brownian motion on the Brownian CRT (i.e.\ the time taken by the process in question to visit the entire state space) is equal to the infimum over the times at which the associated local times are strictly positive everywhere. The proof of this result depends on the recursive self-similarity of the Brownian CRT and a novel version of the first Ray-Knight theorem for trees, which is of independent interest. As a consequence, we obtain that the suitably-rescaled cover times of simple random walks on critical, finite variance Galton-Watson trees converge in distribution with respect to their annealed laws to the cover time of Brownian motion on the Brownian CRT. Other families of graphs that have the Brownian CRT as a scaling limit are also covered. Additionally, we partially confirm a 1991 conjecture of David Aldous regarding related cover-and-return times.
We consider sequences of finite weighted random graphs that converge locally to unimodular i.i.d. weighted random trees. When the weights are atomless, we prove that the matchings of maximal weight converge locally to a matching on the limiting tree. For this purpose, we introduce and study unimodular matchings on weighted unimodular random trees as well as a notion of optimality for these objects. In this context, we prove that, in law, there is a unique optimal unimodular matching for a given unimodular tree. We then prove that this law is the local limit of the sequence of matchings of maximal weight. Along the way, we also show that this law is characterised by an equation derived from a message passing algorithm.
We consider scaling limits of random quadrangulations obtained by applying the Cori-Vauquelin-Schaeffer bijection to Bienaymé-Galton-Watson trees with stably-decaying offspring tails with an exponent $\alpha \in (1, 2)$. We show that these quadrangulations admit subsequential scaling limits wich all have Hausdorff dimension $2\alpha / (\alpha −1)$ almost surely. We conjecture that the limits are unique and spherical, and we introduce a candidate for the limit that we call the alpha-stable sphere. In addition, we conduct a detailed study of volume fluctuations around typical points in the limiting maps, and show that the fluctuations share similar characteristics with those of stable trees.
We prove some technical results relating to the Brownian snake on a stable Lévy tree. This includes some estimates on the range of the snake, estimates on its occupation measure around its minimum and also a proof of the fact that the snake and the height function of the associated tree have no common increase points.
We investigate online maximum cardinality matching, a central problem in ad allocation. In this problem, users are revealed sequentially, and each new user can be paired with any previously unmatched campaign that it is compatible with. Despite the limited theoretical guarantees, the greedy algorithm, which matches incoming users with any available campaign, exhibits outstanding performance in practice. Some theoretical support for this practical success was established in specific classes of graphs, where the connections between different vertices lack strong correlations - an assumption not always valid. To bridge this gap, we focus on the following model: both users and campaigns are represented as points uniformly distributed in the interval [0,1], and a user is eligible to be paired with a campaign if they are similar enough, i.e. the distance between their respective points is less than c/N, with c>0 a model parameter. As a benchmark, we determine the size of the optimal offline matching in these bipartite random geometric graphs. In the online setting and investigate the number of matches made by the online algorithm closest, which greedily pairs incoming points with their nearest available neighbors. We demonstrate that the algorithm's performance can be compared to its fluid limit, which is characterized as the solution to a specific partial differential equation (PDE). From this PDE solution, we can compute the competitive ratio of closest, and our computations reveal that it remains significantly better than its worst-case guarantee. This model turns out to be related to the online minimum cost matching problem, and we can extend the results to refine certain findings in that area of research. Specifically, we determine the exact asymptotic cost of closest in the ϵ-excess regime, providing a more accurate estimate than the previously known loose upper bound.
We investigate the geometry of a typical spin cluster in random triangulations sampled with a probability proportional to the energy of an Ising configuration on their vertices, both in the finite and infinite volume settings. This model is known to undergo a combinatorial phase transition at an explicit critical temperature, for which its partition function has a different asymptotic behavior than uniform maps. The purpose of this work is to give geometric evidence of this phase transition.
In the infinite volume setting, called the Infinite Ising Planar Triangulation, we exhibit a phase transition for the existence of an infinite spin cluster: for critical and supercritical temperatures, the root spin cluster is finite almost surely, while it is infinite with positive probability for subcritical temperatures. Remarkably, we are able to obtain an explicit parametric expression for this probability, which allows to prove that the percolation critical exponent is $\beta = 1/4$.
We also derive critical exponents for the tail distribution of the perimeter and of the volume of the root spin cluster, both in the finite and infinite volume settings. Finally, we establish the scaling limit of the interface of the root spin cluster seen as a looptree. In particular in the whole supercritical temperature regime, we prove that the critical exponents and the looptree limit are the same as for critical Bernoulli site percolation.
Our proofs mix combinatorial and probabilistic arguments. The starting point is the gasket decomposition, which makes full use of the spatial Markov property of our model. This de- composition enables us to characterize the root spin cluster as a Boltzmann planar map in the finite volume setting. We then combine precise combinatorial results obtained through analytic combinatorics and universal features of Boltzmann maps to establish our results.
We derive three critical exponents for Bernoulli site percolation on the on the Uniform Infinite Planar Triangulation (UIPT). First we compute explicitly the probability that the root cluster is infinite. As a consequence, we show that the off-critical exponent for site percolation on the UIPT is $\beta = 1/2$. Then we establish an integral formula for the generating function of the number of vertices in the root cluster. We use this formula to prove that, at criticality, the probability that the root cluster has at least n vertices decays like $n^{−1/7}$. Finally, we also derive an expression for the law of the perimeter of the root cluster and use it to establish that, at criticality, the probability that the perimeter of the root cluster is equal to n decays like $n^{−4/3}$. Among these three exponents, only the last one was previously known. Our main tools are the so-called gasket decomposition of percolation clusters, generic properties of random Boltzmann maps, as well as analytic combinatorics.
In an article published in 1987 in Combinatorica \cite{MR918397}, Frieze and Jackson established a lower bound on the length of the longest induced path (and cycle) in a sparse random graph. Their bound is obtained through a rough analysis of a greedy algorithm. In the present work, we provide a sharp asymptotic for the length of the induced path constructed by their algorithm. To this end, we introduce an alternative algorithm that builds the same induced path and whose analysis falls into the framework of a previous work by the authors on depth-first exploration of a configuration model \cite{EFMN}. We also analyze an extension of our algorithm that mixes depth-first and breadth-first explorations and generates m-induced paths.
We introduce an algorithm that constructs a random uniform graph with prescribed degree sequence together with a depth first exploration of it. In the so-called supercritical regime where the graph contains a giant component, we prove that the renormalized contour process of the Depth First Search Tree has a deterministic limiting profile that we identify. The proof goes through a detailed analysis of the evolution of the empirical degree distribution of unexplored vertices. This evolution is driven by an infinite system of differential equations which has a unique and explicit solution. As a byproduct, we deduce the existence of a macroscopic simple path and get a lower bound on its length.
We show that the uniform measure on triangulations of size $n$ with an Ising configuration biased by the energy of the configuration converges weakly as $n \to \infty$ for the local topology. To do so, for any boundary condition, we establish the algebraicity and the asymptotic behavior of the partition functions of triangulations with spins weighted by their energy. In particular, we show that these partition functions all have the same phase transition at the same critical temperature. Some properties of the limiting object -- called the Infinite Ising Planar Triangulation -- are derived, including the recurrence of the simple random walk at the critical temperature.
We prove that geodesic rays in the Uniform Infinite Planar Triangulation (UIPT) coalesce in a strong sense using the skeleton decomposition of random triangulations discovered by Krikun. This implies the existence of a unique horofunction measuring distances from infinity in the UIPT. We then use this horofunction to define the skeleton "seen from infinity" of the UIPT and relate it to a simple Galton--Watson tree conditioned to survive, giving a new and particularly simple construction of the UIPT. Scaling limits of perimeters and volumes of horohulls within this new decomposition are also derived, as well as a new proof of the $2$-point function formula for random triangulations in the scaling limit due to Ambjorn and Watabiki.
We show that the profile of the tree constructed by the Depth First Search Algorithm in the giant component of an Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi graph with $N$ vertices and connection probability $c/N$ converges to an explicit deterministic shape. This makes it possible to exhibit a long non-intersecting path of length $\left( \rho_c - \frac{\mathrm{Li}_2(\rho_c)}{c} \right) \times N$, where $\rho_c$ is the density of the giant component.
We develop a method to compute the generating function of the number of vertices inside certain regions of the Uniform Infinite Planar Triangulation (UIPT). The computations are mostly combinatorial in flavor and the main tool is the decomposition of the UIPT into layers, called the skeleton decomposition, introduced by Krikun. In particular, we get explicit formulas for the generating functions of the number of vertices inside hulls (or completed metric balls) centered around the root, and the number of vertices inside geodesic slices of these hulls. We also recover known results about the scaling limit of the volume of hulls previously obtained by Curien and Le Gall by studying the peeling process of the UIPT.
We compute an asymptotic expansion with precision 1/n of the moments of the expected empirical spectral measure of Wigner matrices of size n with independent centered entries. We interpret this expansion as the moments of the addition of the semi- circle law and 1/n times an explicit signed measured with null total mass. This signed measure depends only on the second and fourth moments of the entries.
Given a weighted graph, we introduce a partition of its vertex set such that the distance between any two clusters is bounded from below by a power of the minimum weight of both clusters. This partition is obtained by recursively merging smaller clusters and cumulating their weights. For several classical random weighted graphs, we show that there exists a phase transition regarding the existence of an infinite cluster.
The motivation for introducing this partition arises from a connection with the contact process as it roughly describes the geometry of the sets where the process survives for a long time. We give a sufficient condition on a graph to ensure that the contact process has a non trivial phase transition in terms of the existence of an infinite cluster. As an application, we prove that the contact process admits a sub-critical phase on d-dimensional random geometric graphs and on random Delaunay triangulations. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first examples of graphs with unbounded degrees where the critical parameter is shown to be strictly positive.
We compute an asymptotic expansion in $1/c$ of the limit in $n$ of the empirical spectral measure of the adjacency matrix of an Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi random graph with $n$ vertices and parameter $c/n$. We present two different methods, one of which is valid for the more general setting of locally tree-like graphs.
We construct the uniform infinite planar map (UIPM), obtained as the $n \to \infty$ local limit of planar maps with n edges, chosen uniformly at random. We then describe how the UIPM can be sampled using a "peeling" process, in a similar way as for uniform triangulations. This process allows us to prove that for bond and site percolation on the UIPM, the percolation thresholds are $p_c^bond=1/2$ and $p_c^site=2/3$ respectively. This method also works for other classes of random infinite planar maps, and we show in particular that for bond percolation on the uniform infinite planar quadrangulation, the percolation threshold is $p_c^bond=1/3$.
We introduce a new construction of the Uniform Infinite Planar Quadrangulation (UIPQ). Our approach is based on an extension of the Cori-Vauquelin-Schaeffer mapping in the context of infinite trees, in the spirit of previous work. However, we release the positivity constraint on the labels of trees which was imposed in these references, so that our construction is technically much simpler. This approach allows us to prove the conjectures of Krikun pertaining to the "geometry at infinity" of the UIPQ, and to derive new results about the UIPQ, among which a fine study of infinite geodesics.
The uniform infinite planar quadrangulation is an infinite random graph embedded in the plane, which is the local limit of uniformly distributed finite quadrangulations with a fixed number of faces. We study asymptotic properties of this random graph. In particular, we investigate scaling limits of the profile of distances from the distinguished point called the root, and we get asymptotics for the volume of large balls. As a key technical tool, we first describe the scaling limit of the contour functions of the uniform infinite well-labeled tree, in terms of a pair of eternal conditioned Brownian snakes. Scaling limits for the uniform infinite quadrangulation can then be derived thanks to an extended version of Schaeffer's bijection between well-labeled trees and rooted quadrangulations.
We prove that the uniform infinite random quadrangulations defined respectively by Chassaing–Durhuus and Krikun have the same distribution.
J'ai soutenu mon Habilititation à Diriger les Recherches en novembre 2020. Le manuscrit est disponible ici
En décembre 2009, j'ai soutenu ma thèse intitulée "Étude de la quadrangulation infinie uniforme" et encadrée par Jean-François Le Gall.
Le manuscrit (en français) est disponible ici