List of physiological differences


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se-sim

se-mau

sim-mau

mel-se

mel-sim

mel-mau

sim-teis

mau-teis

mau-yak

mau-er

yak-san

Physiological differences in both sexes












duration of development

se>sim
[54]

-

-

mel≥=se
[54]

sim≤=≥mel
[30, 31, 54, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92]
(the direction varies according to fly density, etc.)

-

-

-

-

-

-

adult longevity

-

-

-

mel≥=se
[54]

mel≥=sim
[89]

-

-

-

-

-

-

concentration of essential nutrients
(nicotinic acid, aneurin, pyridoxin and riboflavin)
required for larval development

-

-

-

-

mel≤≥sim
[93]

-

-

-

-

-

-

survival in absence of biotin

-

-

-

-

mel<sim
[93]

-

-

-

-

-

-

larval hemocyte count

se≤sim
[94]

se≤mau
[94]

sim≥mau
[94]

mel=se
[94]

mel≤sim
[94, 95]

mel=mau
[94]

sim=teis
[94]

mau≤teis
[94]

mau≤yak
[94]

-

-

immune response against Hymenoptera Asobara tabida,
Cothonaspis boulardi or Leptopilina boulardi

se≤sim
[94]

se=mau
[94]

sim≥mau
[94, 96]

se≤mel
[94]

mel≤sim
[94, 96, 97]

mel≥mau
[94]
mel=mau
[96]

sim≤teis
[94, 96]

mau≤teis
[94, 96]

mau≤yak
[94, 96]

mau≤er
[96]

-

level of cytoplasmic incompatibility caused by Wolbachia
infection, percentage of Wolbachia-infected sperm cysts,
number of Wolbachia bacteria per embryo

se=sim
[98]

-

-

-

mel≤sim
[99, 100, 101, 102]

-

-

-

-

yak=san [101]

-

larval tolerance to species of fresh yeast

-

-

-

-

mel≤≥sim
[103, 104]

-

-

-

-

-

-

adult resistance to cold

-

-

sim≥mau
[50]

-

mel≥sim
[43, 50, 89, 91, 105, 106, 107]
mel≤=≥sim
[108]
mel≤sim
[92, 109]

mel≥mau
[50]

sim≥teis
[50]

mau=teis
[50]

mau≥yak
[50]

mau≥er
[50]

-

tolerance/resistance to high temperature

-

-

sim≥mau
[50]

-

mel≥sim
[43, 50, 88, 92, 105, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114]

mel≥mau
[50]

sim≥teis
[50]

mau=teis
[50]

mau=yak
[50]

mau≥er
[50]

-

adult resistance to desiccation

-

-

sim=mau
[50]

-

mel≥sim
[50, 110, 111, 115, 116]mel=sim
[107]

mel≥mau
[50]

sim=teis
[50]

mau=teis
[50]

mau=yak
[50]

mau≥er
[50]

-

adult resistance to ethanol

se≤sim
[117, 118]

se≤mau
[117, 118]

sim≥=mau
[117, 118, 119, 120]

mel≥se
[117, 118]

mel≥sim
[52, 115, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123]

mel≥mau
[117, 118, 119, 120]

sim≥teis
[117, 119] sim≤teis
[118, 120]

mau=teis
[117, 119]mau≤teis
[120]

mau=yak
[117, 118, 119, 120]

mau≤er
[117, 118, 119]mau≥er
[120]

-

adult alcohol dehydrogenase activity

se≤sim
[118]m
se≥sim
[5]m

se≤mau
[118]m
se≥mau
[5]m

sim=mau
[5, 118]m

mel≥se
[118]m
mel≤se
[5]m

mel≥sim
[5, 118]m

mel≥mau
[5, 118]m

sim=teis [5, 118]m

mau=teis [5, 118]m

mau=yak
[5, 118]m

mau≤er
[118]m

-

adult resistance to acetaldehyde

-

-

-

-

mel≥sim
[124]

-

-

-

-

-

-

adult resistance to acetic acid

-

-

-

-

mel≥sim
[122]

-

-

-

-

-

-

larval resistance to ethanol

-

-

-

-

mel≥sim
[121, 122, 123]

-

-

-

-

-

-

embryonic survival on Morinda fruits

se≥sim
[6, 56]

se≥mau
[6, 125]

sim=mau
[6, 56, 125]

mel≤se
[6]

mel=sim
[6]

mel=mau
[6]

-

-

-

-

-

adult survival on Morinda fruits

se≥sim
[56, 126, 127]

se≥mau
[56, 126, 127]

sim=mau
[56, 126, 127]

mel≤se[56, 126, 127]

mel≥sim
[56, 126, 127]

mel≥mau
[56, 126, 127]

-

-

-

-

-

larval resistance to hexanoic acid

se≥sim
[128]

se≥mau
[128]

sim≥mau [128]

mel≤se
[128]

mel≥sim
[128]

mel≥mau
[128]

-

-

-

-

-

adult resistance to hexanoic acid

se≥sim
[127, 129, 130]

se≥mau
[127]

sim=mau
[127]

mel≤se
[127, 131, 132]

mel=sim
[127]

mel=mau
[127]

-

-

-

-

-

larval resistance to octanoic acid

se≥sim
[128, 133]

se≥mau
[128]

sim=mau [128]

mel≤se
[128, 133]

mel=sim
[128, 133]

mel=mau
[128]

-

-

-

-

-

adult resistance to octanoic acid

se≥sim
[127, 129, 134]

se≥mau
[127, 134]

sim=mau
[127, 134]

mel≤se
[127, 131, 132, 134]

mel=sim
[127, 134]

mel=mau
[127, 134]

-

-

-

-

-

adult resistance to other Morinda citrifolia compounds

-

-

-

mel≤se
[132]

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

amylase activity

se≤sim
[
54]

-

-

mel≥se
[135, 54]

mel≥sim
[135]

mel≥mau
[135]

sim=teis
[135]

mau=teis
[135]

mau=yak
[135]

mau≥er
[135]

-

triacylglycerol content per adult fly

se≥sim
[5]m

se≥mau
[5]m

sim≥mau
[5]m

mel≤se
[5]m

mel≥sim
[5]m

mel≥mau
[5]m

sim≥teis
[5]m

mau≥teis
[5]m

mau≥yak
[5]m

-

-

glycogen content per adult fly

se≥sim
[5]m

se≥mau
[5]m

sim≥mau
[5]m

mel=se
[5]m

mel≥sim
[5]m

mel≥mau
[5]m

sim≥teis
[5]m

mau≥teis
[5]m

mau=yak
[5]m

-

-

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity per adult fly

se≤sim
[5]m

se≤mau
[5]m

sim=mau
[5]m

mel≥se
[5]m

mel=sim
[5]m

mel=mau
[5]m

sim≥teis
[5]m

mau≥teis
[5]m

mau=yak
[5]m

-

-

glycogen phosphorylase activity per adult fly

se≥sim
[5]m

se≥mau
[5]m

sim=mau
[5]m

mel=se
[5]m

mel≥sim
[5]m

mel≥mau
[5]m

sim≥teis
[5]m

mau≥teis
[5]m

mau=yak
[5]m

-

-

a-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity per adult fly

se≥sim
[5]m

se≥mau
[5]m

sim≥mau
[5]m

mel≥se
[5]m

mel≥sim
[5]m

mel≥mau
[5]m

sim≥teis
[5]m

mau≥teis
[5]m

mau=yak
[5]m

-

-

glycogen synthase activity per adult fly

se≥sim
[5]m

se≥mau
[5]m

sim≥mau
[5]m

mel≤se
[5]m

mel=sim
[5]m

mel≥mau
[5]m

sim≥teis
[5]m

mau=teis
[5]m

mau≤yak
[5]m

-

-

hexokinase activity per adult fly

se≥sim
[5]m

se≥mau
[5]m

sim≥mau
[5]m

mel=se
[5]m

mel≥sim
[5]m

mel≥mau
[5]m

sim≥teis
[5]m

mau≥teis
[5]m

mau=yak
[5]m

-

-

malic enzyme activity per adult fly

se≥sim
[5]m

se≥mau
[5]m

sim≤mau
[5]m

mel=se
[5]m

mel≥sim
[5]m

mel≥mau
[5]m

sim=teis
[5]m

mau≥teis
[5]m

mau=yak
[5]m

-

-

6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity per adult fly

se=sim
[5]m

se≤mau
[5]m

sim≤mau
[5]m

mel=se
[5]m

mel≥sim
[5]m

mel≤mau
[5]m

sim=teis
[5]m

mau≥teis
[5]m

mau≥yak
[5]m

-

-

phosphoglucose isomerase activity per adult fly

se≥sim
[5]m

se≥mau
[5]m

sim≤mau
[5]m

mel≤se
[5]m

mel≥sim
[5]m

mel=mau
[5]m

sim≥teis
[5]m

mau≥teis
[5]m

mau≥yak
[5]m

-

-

phosphoglucomutase activity per adult fly

se≥sim
[5]

se≥mau
[5]

sim=mau
[5]

mel≤se
[5]m

mel≥sim
[5]m

mel≥mau
[5]m

sim≥teis
[5]m

mau≥teis
[5]m

mau=yak
[5]m

-

-

trehalase activity per adult fly

se≥sim
[5]m

se≥mau
[5]m

sim=mau
[5]m

mel=se
[5]m

mel≥sim
[5]m

mel≥mau
[5]m

sim≥teis
[5]m

mau≥teis
[5]m

mau≥yak
[5]m

-

-

olfactory response of the antennal ab3A neuron to hexanoates

se=sim
[7]m

se≤≥mau
[7]m

sim≤≥mau
[7]m

mel≤≥se
[7]m [29]

mel≤≥sim
[7]m

mel≤≥mau [7]m

sim≤≥teis
[7]m

mau≤≥teis
[7]m

mau≤≥yak
[7]m

mau≤≥er
[7]m

yak=san
[7]m

wingbeat frequency during flight

-

-

sim≤mau
[136, 137] [5]m

-

mel≤sim
[41, 137] [5]m

mel≤mau
[136, 137] [5]m

-

-

-

-

-













Female physiological differences












age of reproductive maturity
(mating)

-

-

-

-

mel≥sim
[45]

-

-

-

-

-

-

time before the first fertilized egg is oviposited

se≤sim
[54]

-

-

mel≤se
[54, 138, 139]

mel=sim
[11, 87, 139]

-

-

-

-

-

-

rate of egg production

se≤sim
[48, 54, 56, 57, 140]

se≤mau
[48, 57]

sim≥mau
[57]

mel≥se
[48, 54, 132]

mel≤sim
[11, 87, 141]mel=sim
[54]

-

-

-

-

-

-

stimulation of egg production by Morinda citrifolia
fruits or compounds

se≥sim
[56, 57]

se≥mau
[57]

sim=mau
[57]

mel≤se
[132]

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

composition of epicuticular hydrocarbons

se≤≥sim
[142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147]

se≤≥mau
[142, 144, 145]

sim≤≥mau
[142, 145]

mel≤≥se
[142, 144]

mel≤≥sim
[142, 143, 145, 148, 149]

mel≤≥mau
[142, 145]

sim≤≥teis
[142]

mau=teis
[142]

mau=yak
[142]

mau≤≥er
[142, 144, 149]

yak≤≥san [150]













Male physiological differences











age of reproductive maturity
(mating)


-

-

-

mel≥sim
[45, 151]

-

-

-

-

-

-

rate of postmating mortality of D. simulans females mated with
males of various species

se≤sim
[152]

-

-

-


-

-

-

-

-

-

male sterility at low temperatures


-

-

-

mel≥sim
[40]

-

-

-

-

-

-

presence/absence of sine songs during a single courtship phrase

se<sim
[144, 153]

se<mau
[144, 153]

sim=mau
[136, 153]

mel>se
[144, 153]

mel=sim
[136, 153, 154]

mel=mau
[136, 153]

sim=teis
[153]

sim=teis
[153]

mau>yak
[153, 155]

mau=er
[153]

-

presence/absence of two distinct pulse songs during
a single courtship phrase

se=sim
[153]

se=mau
[153]

sim=mau
[153]

mel=se
[153]

mel=sim
[153]

mel=mau
[153]

sim<teis
[153]

mau<teis
[153]

mau≤yak
[153, 155]

mau=er
[153]

-

intrapulse frequency of the pulse song

-

-

sim≤mau
[153]

-

mel≤sim
[153, 154, 156, 157]

mel≤mau
[153]

sim≥teis
[153]

mau≥teis
[153]

mau≥yak
[153, 155]

mau≥er
[153]

-

mean interpulse interval
(ipi) of the pulse song

se>sim
[144, 156, 158, 159]

se≥mau
[144, 153]

sim≥mau
[153, 158] sim≤mau
[136]

mel<se
[144, 156]

mel<sim
[136, 137, 153, 154, 156, 157, 160, 161, 162, 163]

mel≤mau
[136, 153]

sim≥teis
[153]

mau≥teis
[153]

mau≤yak
[153, 155]

mau≥er
[153]

-

oscillation period of the ipi

-

-

-

-

mel≥sim
[136, 162, 164]

-

-

-

-

-

-

amplitude of the ipi oscillation

-

-

-

-

mel≤sim
[162, 164, 165]

-

-

-

-

-

-

sine song frequency

NR

NR

sim=mau
[136, 153]

NR

mel≤=sim
[136, 153, 154, 157]

mel≤mau
[136, 153]

sim≥teis
[153]

mau≥teis
[153]

NR

mau≤er
[153]

-

courtship time spent in sine song

-

-

-

-

mel≥sim
[157]

-

-

-

-

-

-

courtship time spent in pulse song

-

-

-

-

mel≥sim
[157]

-

-

-

-

-

-

composition of epicuticular hydrocarbons

se≤≥sim
[142, 145, 146]

se≤≥mau
[142, 145]

sim≤≥mau
[142, 145]

mel≤≥se
[142, 145]

mel≤≥sim
[142, 145, 148, 149]

mel=mau
[145]

sim≤≥teis
[142]

mau=teis
[142]

mau=yak
[142]

mau≤≥er
[142]

yak≤≥san [150]




Table legend

mau: D. mauritiana, mel: D. melanogaster, se: D. sechellia, sim: D. simulans, teis: D. teissieri, yak: D. yakuba, er: D. erecta.
All the species pairs that produce hybrids are represented in the table, except the D. mauritiana-D. santomea and D. simulans-D. santomea pairs. Only two differences are known for these species pairs: olfactory response of the antennal ab3B neuron to hexanoates [7] and presence of the muscle of Lawrence [8].
Variations higher than 3 standard deviations are underlined.
=: no difference,
<= or >=: incomplete deviation, species exhibit significantly different phenotypic means (<=: smaller, >=: higher) with overlapping phenotypic distributions,
≤ or ≥ or ≤ ≥: significantly different species means (≤: smaller, ≥: higher, ≤ ≥: different), but whether species phenotypic distributions overlap is unknown,
< or > or <>: total divergence (<: smaller, >: higher, <>: different) with no overlap between species,
-: not determined,
NR: not relevant,
m or f: phenotypic variation was only reported for males (m) or females (f) but probably also exists in the other sex.

Although the classification into individual traits was obvious for most characters, the individualization of a few traits was arbitrary. For example, organ shape and size were considered as separate traits. Better categorization should be possible once more is known about the genetic basis of these traits. We included biochemical and ultrastructural variations but we chose to exclude traits related to viability or sterility in interspecific crosses. We also excluded genetic traits such as sensitivity to transposable elements [1, 2, 3] (this trait affects mutation rate rather than phenotype) and recombination rate [4] (recombination rate varies with genomic location; listing this trait for several genomic positions would thus bias our compilation). Note that in a few cases opposite results have been found. These discrepancies could be due to fly strains or in experimental set-ups/recordings (see for example [6]).

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